There is evidence for these catastrophes in the geological record here Velikovsky was advocating Catastrophist ideas as opposed to the prevailing Uniformitarian notions and archeological record. These encounters included both extremely old texts such as the Sanskrit Rigveda and the Sumerian Epic of Gilgameshand current oral narratives such as mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas or stories told in traditional African religions.
Freud had argued that Akhenaton, the supposedly monotheistic Egyptian pharaoh, was the source of the religious principles that Moses taught to the people of Israel in the desert. Velikovsky put forward the psychoanalytic idea of "Cultural Amnesia" as a mechanism whereby these literal records came to be regarded as mere myths and legends.
In this view lies the germ of an evolutionary account of religion. In the s, Barthes published a series of essays examining modern myths and the process of their creation in his book Mythologieswhich stood as an early work in the emerging post-structuralist approach to mythology, which recognised myths' existence in the modern world and in popular culture.
They provide answers to the mysteries of being and becoming, mysteries which, as mysteries, are hidden, yet mysteries which are revealed through story and ritual.
Stephen Jay Gould  offered a synopsis of the mainstream response to Velikovsky, writing, "Velikovsky is neither crank nor charlatan —although, to state my opinion and to quote one of my colleagues, he is at least gloriously wrong In fact, ancient and traditional societies have often justified their customs by claiming that their gods or mythical heroes established those customs.
The controversy surrounding Velikovsky peaked in the mid s and public interest declined in the s, and byerstwhile Velikovskyist C. The questions raised by these theories were further explored during the Renaissance. This distinction depends to some extent upon taking a projectionist view of religion as a human product.
Flood myth Cultures around the world tell stories about a great flood. Reflections on the Romance of Science. He speculated that myths arose due to the lack of abstract nouns and neuter gender in ancient languages.
These ideas were first put forward briefly in his Theses for the Reconstruction of Ancient History, but Ages in Chaos was his first full-length work on the subject. Into this situation Christianity was injected, and in its encounter with classical civilization it absorbed a number of the critiques of the gods of the older thinkers.
Monomyth and Hero A number of scholars have suggested that hero stories from various cultures have the same underlying structure. For example, a poetic description of the sea as "raging" was eventually taken literally and the sea was then thought of as a raging god.
Velikovsky shifted several chronologies and dynasties from the Egyptian Old Kingdom to Ptolemaic times by centuries a scheme he called the Revised Chronologyplacing The Exodus contemporary with the fall of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. Comparative mythology Save Comparative mythology is the comparison of myths from different cultures in an attempt to identify shared themes and characteristics.
The French scholar and politician Charles de Brosses —77 attempted to explain Greek polytheism partly through the fetishism belief in the magical powers of certain objects found in West Africa.
Posthumous administration of literary estate[ edit ] For many years, Velikovsky's estate was controlled by his two daughters, Shulamit Velikovsky Kogan b.
He argued that these eliminate phantom "Dark Ages", and vindicate the biblical accounts of history and those recorded by Herodotus. Lorenz Welcome to Religion Meanwhile, Islamic theology had had an impact on Western Christianity, notably upon medieval Scholastic philosophy, in which the values of both reason and revelation were maintained.
According to these thinkers, the ancients worshiped natural phenomena, such as fire and air, gradually deifying them. Another Sophist, Critias 5th century bceconsidered religion to have been invented to frighten humans into adhering to morality and justice.
Linguistic Some scholars look at the linguistic relationships between the myths of different cultures. His understanding of religion as a form of projection—an explanation that goes back to the ancient Greek thinker Xenophanes —was taken up in various ways by, among others, Marx, Freud, and Barth.
Jung asserted that all humans share certain innate unconscious psychological forces, which he called archetypes. Scholars have found striking similarities between the mythological and religious terms used in different cultures of Europe and India.
Thus, some political ideologiessuch as communism and fascismhave been regarded as analogous to religion. A rather different positivism was expressed by the English philosopher Herbert Spencer — ; in it religion has a place beside science in attempting to refer to the unknown and unknowable Absolute.
Contact Webmaster with contact form. One particularly successful example of this approach is the study of Indo-European mythology. The Italian Humanist Giovanni Boccaccio —75 attempted to resolve these tensions in a medieval way by extensively allegorizing the ancient myths.
Although the 19th-century theories that form the starting point of the modern study of religion were often based directly on metaphysical schemes in competition with Christian and other theologies, there was an atmosphere notably different from that of preceding periods, and the stage was set for a more complex understanding of the history and nature of religion.
Myths put one in touch with sacred realities, the fundamental sources of being, power, and truth. Comparative mythology is the systematic comparison of myths from different cultures. It seeks to discover underlying themes that are common to the myths of multiple cultures.
In Joseph Campbell () made a big splash in the field of mythology with his book The Hero With a Thousand sgtraslochi.com book built on the pioneering work of German anthropologist Adolph Bastian (), who first proposed the idea that myths from all over the world seem to be built from the same "elementary ideas.".
Comparative Mythology is just what its title suggests. It is an overview and comparison of the mythic and epic stories of Vedic, Iranian, Greek, Roman, Celtic, Germanic, Baltic and Slavic cultures. Comparative mythology is the comparison of myths from different cultures in an attempt to identify shared themes and characteristics.
Comparative mythology has served a variety of academic purposes. For example, scholars have used the relationships between different myths to trace the development of religions and cultures, to propose common origins for myths from different cultures.
Religious Beliefs in Africa - comparative info about the diverse religious systems in the living African world. Start studying Unit 7: Comparative Mythology. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.A study on comparative mythology from different cultures